Therefore, Locke said that individuals enter into civil society to protect their natural rights via an "unbiased judge" or common authority, such as courts, to appeal to.
He determined the essence of Christianity to be a belief in Christ the redeemer and recommended avoiding more detailed debate.
Some important thinkers of the Enlightenment — notably Shaftesbury and Rousseau — present religion as founded on natural human sentiments, rather than on the operations of the intellect.
Also, although the existence of evil and disorder in nature may serve actually to strengthen the case for the argument, given the disorder in human creations as well, the notion that God authors evil and disorder is disturbing.
Trade, for example and all it involved— travel, the establishment of businesses, banks and stock exchanges- -added more institutions that were outside the control of the Church. Baruch Spinoza also greatly contributes to the development of Enlightenment political philosophy in its early years.
Prior to the Enlightenment religion was the dominant political force across Europe. Consequently, according to Philo, the argument does not support the conclusion that God exists, taking God to be unitary, infinite, perfect, et cetera.
While the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries and many were members of the nobility, their ideas played an important part in undermining the legitimacy of the Old Regime and shaping the French Revolution.
Religion now came under the same scrutiny as other areas of thought. As exemplifying these and other tendencies of the Enlightenment, one work deserves special mention: We also exist naturally in a condition of freedom, insofar as we may do with ourselves and our possessions as we please, within the constraints of the fundamental law of nature.
However, with time there developed a more pessimistic view of nature, which lessened the force of Providence. The original Protestant assertion against the Catholic Church bases itself upon the authority of scripture. The enthusiasm for the scientific study of humanity in the period incorporates a tension or paradox concerning the place of humanity in the cosmos, as the cosmos is re-conceived in the context of Enlightenment philosophy and science.
In Clovis, king of the Franks, converted to Catholicism and used the religion to unify his people.
One view of the political changes that occurred during the Enlightenment is that the " consent of the governed " philosophy as delineated by Locke in Two Treatises of Government represented a paradigm shift from the old governance paradigm under feudalism known as the " divine right of kings ".
Arguably the pleasure we feel in the apprehension of something beautiful is disinterested pleasure. When we reflect on first-order passions such as gratitude, kindness and pity, we find ourselves approving or liking them and disapproving or disliking their opposites. New Optimism This new way of looking at the world, of listening first to experience rather than to tradition and the church, was a major characteristic of the Enlightenment.
By virtue of our receptivity to such feelings, we are capable of virtue and have a sense of right and wrong. The general religous thought during this time was Deism, the belief that there is a God, but He does not intervene in daily human life.
Good morals and a small clutch of plain, rational beliefs kept the Christian safe from unbelief and guided him to eternal reward. Separation of church and state and Separation of church and state in the United States The "Radical Enlightenment"   promoted the concept of separating church and state,  an idea that is often credited to English philosopher John Locke — Rick Wade provides an overview of this important period.
It was centered on man, and it bound all men to a common moral law. What hard evidence is there that they persuaded thousands more to follow them and turn deism into a popular cause?.
Video: Pre-Scientific Revolution: Logic, Reason & Scientific Experimentation In this lesson, we explore the reasons behind the typical narrative surrounding the Middle Ages and the advances in. Enlightenment: Enlightenment, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics.
Atheism, Religion and Enlightenment in pre-Revolutionary Europe Mark Curran Royal Historical Society Studies in History New Series, Early Modern History, French Studies, Philosophy. Enlightenment, French siècle des Lumières (literally “century of the Enlightened”), German Aufklärung, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics.
The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the s. Europe would be forever changed by these ideas.
In America, intellectuals were reading these ideas as well. On their side of the Atlantic, Enlightened ideas of liberty and progress had a chance to flourish without the shackles of Old Europe.Pre enlightenment religions in europe